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綠建築 蓋出會呼吸的房子

台灣各角落已有一群人,自己找綠色建築師合作,興建起一棟棟康健的家。也有人自己動手改造房屋,像定居北縣三芝、來自加拿大的劉力學(Pierre Loisel),30多年前就將現成住家改綠。我們在盛夏走進他的家,涼爽,木裝潢至今依然完好、乾燥,一點也不像在海邊。

人一天有多少時間待在屋子裡?答案是:九○%。但不管是身處地段高檔、裝潢奢侈的豪宅,或一般的平房、公寓、大廈裡,多數住在現代建築裡的人,都有類似苦談:夏天不開冷氣就睡不著,耗電又吹壞身體,還有一堆找不出病源的過敏毛病;冬天明明裹著棉被,還是冷得皮皮挫,睡不著。

在省能潮流趨勢下,有人不開冷氣,或是多到公共空間例如大賣場吹冷氣。其實,真正綠建築不會讓你如此虐待自己、不顧美感、拋棄家裡的。

其實,房子過冷過熱,主要是設計不良,並非棉被不夠暖、冷氣不夠強。若沒有考慮通風、採光、防潮、遮熱、保暖等物理環境條件,裝設再多的機械設備控制,也只能治標。還有那無影過敏原,早就舒服的躲在你家不良的牆壁、地板、裝潢裡。

著有《別讓房子謀殺你的健康》的腎臟科醫師江守山,就曾提及他有位年輕患者,結婚沒多久就因雙腳水腫、體重增加十公斤而來求診,原來是得了「局部性腎絲球硬化症」。追查原因,竟是他婚前裝潢了新房,是那些有毒裝潢物質侵害他的腎。不綠建材裡的甲醛,竟得三至十二年才能完全消除……。

並非唱高調,因為,台灣各角落已有一群人,自己找綠色建築師合作,興建起一棟棟康健的家。也有人自己動手改造房屋,像定居北縣三芝、來自加拿大的劉力學(Pierre Loisel),三十多年前就將現成住家改綠。我們在盛夏走進他的家,涼爽,木裝潢至今依然完好、乾燥,一點也不像在海邊。

還沒有辦法自地自建綠房子或擁有大房子的人,澄毓綠建築設計顧問公司總經理陳重仁,示範了將既有小建築改綠的可能。他們的辦公室位於台北市區一棟舊大廈裡,只有十八坪,一樣有改善空間。

如果你一時無法整修自家,台北科技大學建築系副教授蔡仁惠說,光是在牆外種些爬藤類植物,或是調整開窗方式,就有立即遮蔭、通風效果了。

台灣從一九九九年起,已正式施行「綠建築標章」九項評估指標,是全世界繼英國、美國及加拿大之後,第四個科學量化的綠建築評估系統,而且是唯一適用於亞熱帶的系統。

有些建設公司如鼎宇、昇陽、震大等,願意費時申請並非強制性的綠建築標章。像震大建設八年來,每一棟新房都取得綠標章。震大建築師施俊偉說,這標章並不會讓房子更好賣或多賣錢,國人買房仍是主看「Location, location, location.」(地段)。震大很早就開始蓋綠建築,他說,「有點像在傳道。」

以震大在台北市仁愛路最新落成的十三層大廈「The House」為例,規畫時,就考量基地坐北朝南,該如何結合坐向、氣候、風向,以自然控制風、光、影。

例如,南向就全面開窗,以多引進夏天舒爽的西南風。這一邊的大窗並深凹五十公分,陽台甚至凹入二米三,一方面遮陽以降低耗能,一方面也將仁愛路的林蔭借景進屋。北向的樓梯間,因陽光不強無過熱之虞,也大面開落地窗。

至於東向,因冬天有東北季風,則深凹一米再縮小開窗。餐廳設在此面,也讓吃早餐的人能享受清晨陽光。西向為避免西曬,完全沒開窗,但將最怕潮濕的衛浴和更衣室設於此,就有天然烘乾的功效了。

誠如淡江大學建築系副教授王俊雄說:「綠建築,其實就是窗戶的管理。」不過,他也提醒:大家都討厭西曬,但是西曬房在冬日,卻是可以溫暖窩在裡頭的。

因此,綠建築要做到與自然四季均衡協調,必須仔細察覺每個基地不同的微氣候、地形風等。像在宜蘭,受東西向海陸風的影響就比季風大,設計房子時就要注意。

蔡仁惠感嘆的說,台灣少有綠建築,是因為不了解周遭自然環境太久了。多數人蓋房子,「光線的問題就交給燈,熱的問題就交給冷氣。」其實,大自然力量大,光是在建築周圍種些樹、陽台擺些盆栽,天天給它澆水就會長,就能讓房子舒服。

和築開發公司總經理吳森基,也是希望能蓋出會呼吸的「有機體」,讓建築與其中的人能順應四時節氣,因而獨力鑽研「自然力建築」。他提及,中醫所認為外部環境影響身體的「六邪」──風、寒、暑、濕、燥、火,全是指「過」才會邪。適當的感覺冷暖,其實更好。但現在人蓋房子,多半以設備打造恆溫恆濕環境,造成人中樞神經退化。從室內到室外往往反應不及,夏天易中暑,冬天易受寒。

他蓋房子前,會先找出基地周圍一年中最大的穩定風向,再利用地形風創造建築的自然通風。和築並偏好在大台北郊區推案。吳森基以為:房子若能眺望到山、海,心情很容易沉靜。而晚上也留在都市,不容易有「收」的感覺。且睡覺時在完全的黑暗中,才真正有效。走進和築位於台北縣市交界的小坪頂新案基地,向陽谷中群山周繞,前方遠處則是海,果然清風送爽。

還不能立即住在綠建築的人,請不要沮喪。我們也介紹了能參觀的公共綠建築及可試住的綠民宿,請你直接體驗:綠建築帶給你的,是不是你要的感覺?看官挑個餐廳、買件衣裳都會選好久,找個健康的好家何必急?

最關鍵的,誠如北科大老師蔡仁惠所言:在綠建築之前,心,要先變綠……。



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24 則留言:

  1. 會呼吸的房子,感覺好棒喔!
    不過我大概只能做到先把心變綠吧...!

    回覆刪除
  2. 原來不良的建材對身體的影響這麼大,難怪我家的牆壁一到夏天就熱到發燙,電風扇開到最大還是熱到爆.......

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  3. 猛甲海鮮說<會呼吸的房子!綠建築強調環保,是否大部分均採可回收的建材建築設計,在大都會裡實在需要更多會呼吸會進行光合作用的房子

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  4. 塑膠浴缸會對身體有影響嗎?

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  5. 綠建築 蓋出會呼吸的房子
    想到就很讚!

    回覆刪除
  6. 住居往往是一輩子,千萬別讓房子謀殺了你的健康啊!

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  7. 美食難以拒絕,的確沒錯,所以才要選擇健康的食物,拼了一輩子,吃貴ㄧ點健康的東西,難道還捨不得嗎?

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